New Peer-Reviewed Paper: A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and developmental toxicity

A systematic evaluation of chemicals in hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater for reproductive and developmental toxicity by Elise G Elliott, Adrienne S Ettinger, Brian P Leaderer, Michael B Bracken and Nicole C Deziel, January/February 2017, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 27, doi:10.1038/jes.2015.81

Abstract
Hydraulic-fracturing fluids and wastewater from unconventional oil and natural gas development contain hundreds of substances with the potential to contaminate drinking water. Challenges to conducting well-designed human exposure and health studies include limited information about likely etiologic agents. We systematically evaluated 1021 chemicals identified in hydraulic-fracturing fluids (n=925), wastewater (n=132), or both (n=36) for potential reproductive and developmental toxicity to triage those with potential for human health impact. We searched the REPROTOX database using Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers for chemicals with available data and evaluated the evidence for adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Next, we determined which chemicals linked to reproductive or developmental toxicity had water quality standards or guidelines. Toxicity information was lacking for 781 (76%) chemicals. Of the remaining 240 substances, evidence suggested reproductive toxicity for 103 (43%), developmental toxicity for 95 (40%), and both for 41 (17%). Of these 157 chemicals, 67 had or were proposed for a federal water quality standard or guideline. Our systematic screening approach identified a list of 67 hydraulic fracturing-related candidate analytes based on known or suspected toxicity. Incorporation of data on potency, physicochemical properties, and environmental concentrations could further prioritize these substances for future drinking water exposure assessments or reproductive and developmental health studies.

[Refer also to:

2005: Drilling and Frac Chemical (Mud) List Historical by Petroleum Services Association of Canada

Updated but reduced list: Drilling Product Listing for Potential Toxicity Information

2006 & 2007: Sampling by Alberta Environment of contaminated drinking water from municipal wells supplying the Hamlet of Rosebud and Ernst’s private water well:

2006 Toxic chemicals found by the regulator in Rosebud Hamlet drinking water

2006 Toxic chemicals found by the regulator in Ernst drinking water

2012 10 11: Federal clean-up won’t get it all, Need another $40 billion to remove contamination

2013 02 05: Hydraulic Fracturing in Canada, Federal Environment Commissioner Scott Vaughan Reports Concerns, List of Fracking Substances in Canada Still Secret

2013 08 07: Mudslinging hurts democratic debate about climate and economy, says outgoing watchdog Scott Vaughan, Parliament’s outgoing environment watchdog, Scott Vaughan, says no one should be bullied for seeking information

2013 11 29: Harper government not ready to reduce pollution from oil companies but willing to waste $40 Million of Canadian tax money in one year to lie for billion dollar profit-making multinational polluters

2014 02 28: Fracking might be as damaging as thalidomide, tobacco and asbestos, UK’s Chief Scientific Adviser warns in new report: “In all these and many other cases, delayed recognition of adverse effects incurred not only serious environmental or health impacts, but massive expense”

2014 03 11: Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory [NPRI] Oil and Gas Sector Review; Chemicals injected and fugitive or venting emissions (e.g. H2S) by oil and gas industry exempt from reporting

2014 07 24: Harper government enabling the frac harm cover up? Environment Canada criticized for leaving fracking chemicals off pollutant list saying not enough frac chemicals used – 362,000 litres of diesel invert lost underground near Alberta family home

2014 08 28: Environment Canada Keeping Nearly a Thousand Frac Chemicals Secret: Memo released through Access to Information Legislation

2014 10 01: Why was a 2012 Health Canada Report, admitting significant health hazards and risks to groundwater and air from hydraulic fracturing, kept from the public?

2015 02 25: Superior Court hears arguments on release of frac chemicals; Range Resources appealing 2013 Court Order to release all chemicals

2015 10 10: Oil and gas industry pollution travels hundreds of kilometres, No wonder Harper is muzzling Canadian scientists

2016 06 14: Elevated Cancer risks surround oil & gas drilling. Fracking is bad for your health says Israel Health Ministry official; Frac flowback stage causes greatest air pollution; WORLD-WIDE STUDY: One in three strokes caused by air pollution

2016 07 11: NDP Desperation or Malfeasance? Alberta government to throw yet more public money away on high risk frac’ing, including to companies that break the law and contaminate drinking water

2016 09 01: The Oil & Gas Industry Way: Lie (a lot); Pollute you and your loved ones, communities, livestock, air, land, food and water; Arrogantly & smirkingly violate laws, regulations and promises knowing the legally immune, “No Duty of Care” AER violates laws and citizen rights to protect polluters; Rip you off while dumping their legal liabilities on you after taking $billions in profits

2016 12 13: Environmental causes of childhood cancers ‘grossly underestimated.’ In Canada, toxic chemicals used by oil and gas industry are exempt under CEPA (1999) ]

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