Four train cars derail at yard northeast of Edmonton; one leaking hazardous product by Edmonton Journal, December 9, 2015
A cleanup is ongoing at a Canadian Pacific Railway yard northeast of Fort Saskatchewan after four train cars derailed Tuesday afternoon.
One of the derailed cars rolled down an embankment and spilled all of its contents. It was carrying 99,000 litres of a flammable, toxic liquid called styrene monomer, which is used in some plastic products.
The liquid has been contained to a ditch and is expected to harden over time. Once that happens, it will be removed, Transportation Safety Board of Canada spokesman Glen Pilon said on Wednesday.
The other three derailed cars did not spill any product. There were no injuries or fire.
The derailment occurred during a “switching assignment,” which means the 38-car train was likely being moved onto a different track at the time.
The derailment occurred at Scotford Yard on Range Road 215 at about 3:25 p.m. on Tuesday. The yard is about 50 km northeast of Edmonton.
A Transportation Safety Board investigator will assess why the cars derailed to see if a full investigation needs to be completed, Pilon said. [Emphasis added]
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The present invention relates to multi-arm star macromolecules which are used as thickening agents or rheology modifiers, including use in hydraulic fracturing fluid compositions. In one aspect of the invention, a star macromolecule is capable of thickening via a dual mechanism comprising (1) self-assembly of the hydrophobic polymerized segments of the star macromolecules via hydrophobic interactions or associations, and (2) association, reaction, or combination of the hydroxyl-containing polymerized segments of one or more of the star macromolecules.
 Suitable hydrophobic monomers for PI , for the at least one hydrophobic monomers of P4 and P4a, or P7, that may be used to form an arm or segment of an arm, such as a polymeric segment of an arm, of a star macromolecule may include, but is not limited to styrene, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, iso-butyl acrylate, t-butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, decyl acrylate, octyl acrylate; methyl methacrylate; ethyl methacrylate; n-butyl methacrylate; iso-butyl methacrylate; t- butyl methacrylate; 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate; decyl methacrylate; methyl ethacrylate; ethyl ethacrylate; n-butyl ethacrylate; iso-butyl ethacrylate; t-butyl ethacrylate; 2-ethylhexyl ethacrylate; decyl ethacrylate; 2,3-dihydroxypropyl acrylate; 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate; 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate; hydroxypropyl methacrylate; glycidyl methacrylate; glycidyl acrylate, acrylamides, styrene; styrene optionally substituted with one or more CI – CI 2 straight or branched chain alkyl groups; or alkylacrylate. For example hydrophobic monomers may comprise methacrylate monomers functionalized with thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine, or acrylate monomers functionalized with thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine, or styrene monomers functionalized with thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine, or vinyl monomers functionalized with thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine, or acrylamide monomer functionalized with thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine. For example, the hydrophobic monomer may comprise styrene; alpha-methylstyrene; t- butylstyrene; p-methylstyrene; methyl methacrylate; or t-butyl-acrylate. For example, the hydrophobic monomer may comprise styrene. In certain embodiments, the hydrophobic monomer may comprise a protected functional group.
1. An oil-based drilling mud which comprises:
(e) about 0.25 to about 4 lb/bbl. of a powdered sulfonate-containing styrene polymer having a particle size range of about 0.1 to 10.0 μm, said powdered sulfonate-containing polymer having about 5 to about 100 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the neutralized sulfonate-containing styrene polymer.
2. A drilling mud according to claim 1, wherein the sulfonate groups of said neutralized sulfonate-containing styrene polymer are neutralized with a counterion selected from the group consisting of antimony, iron, aluminum, lead and Groups IA, IIA, IB and IIB of the Periodic Table of Elements.
3. A drilling mud according to claim 1 wherein the sulfonate groups of said neutralized sulfonate-containing styrene polymer are neutralized with sodium counterions.
4. A drilling mud according to claim 1 wherein said neutralized sulfonate-containing styrene polymer is of sodium sulfonate styrene monomer and styrene monomer.
The powdered neutralized sulfonate-containing polymers are formed by a free radical copolymerization process. The monomer used in the free radical emulsion copolymerization process is styrene monomer, which is copolymerized with sulfonate-containing styrene monomer.
In general, the styrene and sulfonate-containing styrene monomer are dispersed in a water phase in the presence of a free radical initiator and a suitable surfactant, wherein the temperature is sufficient to initiate polymerization. The resultant latex is injected in a Buchi Laboratory Spray Dryer.
New oil-based foam drilling fluids for oil and/or gas wells include a base oil, a foaming agent and a polymer including at least one aromatic olefin monomer and at least one diene monomer. The polymer improves foam properties rendering a foam stable at temperatures at or above 350° F.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to an oil-based foam drilling fluid for oil and/or gas wells and for methods of making and using same.
More particularly, the present invention relates to an oil-based foam drilling fluid (OBFDF) for oil and/or gas wells, where the composition includes a base oil, a foaming agent, and a hydrocarbon soluble polymer comprising a polymer of a styrene monomer and a diene monomer. The foam is stable at a temperature of at least 350° F. The present invention also relates to methods of making and using same.
Exemplary examples of aromatic olefin monomers styrene, α-methyl-styrene, α-trifluoromethyl-styrene, fluorinated styrenes, where the fluorine atoms are disposed at ring positions or on ethylenyl positions, chlorinated styrenes, where the chlorine atoms are disposed at ring positions or on ethylenyl positions, alkylated styrenes, where the alkyl group are disposed at ring positions or on ethylenyl positions, vinyl-pyridine, alkylated vinyl-pyridines, where the alkyl group are disposed at ring positions or on ethylenyl positions, fluorinated vinyl-pyridines, where the fluorine atoms are disposed at ring positions or on ethylenyl positions, chlorinated vinyl-pyridines, where the chlorine atoms are disposed at ring positions or on ethylenyl positions, or mixtures or combinations thereof.
Exemplary examples of diene monomers include, without limitation, butadiene (B or BD), isoprene (2-methyl butadiene) (I), 2,3-dimethyl butadiene, 1,3-pentadiene, 1,3-hexadiene, or other similar 1,3-diene monomers, or mixtures or combinations thereof.
Exemplary examples of polymers include, without limitation, styrene-isoprene copolymers (random or block), diblock polymers (SI), triblock polymers (SIS or ISI), multi-blocks (ISISIS, SISISI, etc.), styrene-butadiene copolymers (random or block), diblock polymers (SBR), triblock polymers (SBRS or BRSBR), multi-blocks (BRSBRSBRS, S BRSBRSBR, etc.), styrene-isoprene-butadiene copolymers (random or block), triblock polymers (SBRI, SIBR, or ISBR), multi-blocks (SISBRS, SBRSIS, BRISIBRS, etc.), or mixtures or combinations thereof. Exemplary star polymers include polymers having a core and arm made of a polymer including styrene and I or BD. Other exemplary samples will include graft polymers of styrene and butadiene or isoprene.
Styrene is another of the chemicals that may be used to coat sand and make a polymer with acrylonitrile and butadiene. Styrene is rarely pure and generally contains other contaminants like toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, all of which can be released into the environment when used in hydraulic fracturing.
Why am I focused on acrylonitrile and styrene? Acrylonotrile and styrene have been found in the drinking water of citizens in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. These families with contaminated water have experienced human health impacts such as mouth sores, rashes and gastro-intestinal symptoms, as well as observed illnesses and deaths in their lambs, goats, and chickens.
Acrylonitrile and styrene have also been found in the air near oil and gas waste sites in New Mexico.